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Saturday, August 21, 2010

            A little history of this important city is useful in understanding some of the sights.  From the first Duke of Bavaria, Garibald I of the Agilolfings line in 555 AD to the last King of Bavaria, Ludwig III in 1918, it is unnecessary to go through every one of the over 100 that have ruled this city over that 1,363 years.  But the pivotal and historically important ones make seeing this city more fulfilling.  It might be best to start with the founding of Munich.  To read about all of them click here.

            The year 1158 is accepted as the foundation date of the city because it is the earliest date it is mentioned in a document which was signed in Augsburg. Before  that the Guelph, Henry the Lion (1129�95) (left) (Duke of Saxony and Bavaria) had built a bridge over the Isar River next to a settlement of Benedictine monks.  This was on the Salt Route and was a toll bridge.

            Henry's (left, marriage to Mathilde) ancestors were the House of Welf (in English, Guelf or Guelph.)  Family chart to the right.  In 1070, Welf IV became Duke of Bavaria.  His son Welf V (1072-1120) (below left) married Countess Matilda of Tuscany who died childless and left him all her possessions in Italy including Tuscany, Ferrara, Modena, Mantua, and Reggio.  This played a big role in the Investiture Controversy.  Because the Welf dynasty sided with the Pope in this controversy, partisans of the Pope came to be known in Italy as "Guelphs."  It is interesting to read the Controversy and how it led to the first formation of the College of Cardinals for election of the pope in 1059 and its final settlement in the Concordant of Worms in 1122.  Henry IX (1075-1126) (right), called the Black, ruled from 1120 to 1126.

            What is interesting, as an aside, is that in 1714 Georg Ludwig (a Welf descendent and Duke of Hannover) inherited the British throne as King George I (left, guinea right) as a result of the Act of Settlement.  His grandson George III (right) caused the union of Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom, lost the colonies in the American Revolution, finally defeated Napoleon and died mentally ill from porphyria.  The Welf dynasty continued to rule Great Britain (where they were known as the House of Hanover) until the death of his granddaughter Queen Victoria in 1901.  In 1913, a descendent, Ernst August, married the daughter of Kaiser Wilhelm II and was allowed to inherit the duchy of Hanover.  His rule there was short-lived, however, as the monarchy came to an end following WWI in 1918.  The Welf dynasty continues to exist today and its current head, Ernst August V, is the third and present husband (left) of Princess Caroline of Monaco (they are now separated.)

            Going back; in 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and was fortified.  Henry the Lion's possessions in Bavaria and Saxony are shown in the map.  He was succeeded by Otto I Wittelsbach (right) (1117-83) called the Redhead (der Rotkopf) who ruled from 1180-3.  Otto was the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach and became so after the trial of Henry the Lion who was then deposed by his cousin, Emperor Barbarossa.  His descendants (the Wittelsbach dynasty) ruled Bavaria for the next 738 years until 1918.  It is very interesting to click the above link and see the whole lineage.  In 1240, Munich was transferred to his son Otto II Wittelsbach (1206�53) (right) and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria (the southern part.)

Bavaria was split into two parts twice; the first time from 1253�1340 (87 years) and the second time from 1349�1503 (154 years.)

            Louis IV became the Duke of Upper Bavaria in 1294, was elected German king in 1314, King of Italy in 1327 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328.  This Wittelsbach was a real big shot.  He strengthened Munich's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income.  In January 1328, Louis marched into Italy, entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna.  Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) (left) deposed on grounds of heresy.  There was some basis for this, by the way.  The popes were in Avignon at that time living quite well under French protection (See France Diarios.)

            Louis then installed a spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V, but both had to flee Rome in August 1328, after Robert, King of Naples (right) had sent both a fleet and an army against them.  Pietro was the 32nd of 39 Antipopes in the history of the Church.  In fulfillment of an oath he made, on his return from Italy, Louis founded Ettal Abbey on April 28, 1330.  We will be there next week.

            Louis inherited Lower Bavaria after the death of Duke John I in 1340, and then reunited the Duchy of Bavaria.  He died in 1347 and is buried in the Frauenkirche.  In the late 15th Century Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts.  The Old Town Hall was enlarged, and Munich's largest gothic church, now a cathedral (Frauenkirche) was constructed in only twenty years, starting in 1468.

            When Bavaria was reunited for the second time in 1503, Munich became its capital.  Arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court.  During the 16th Century, Munich was a center of the German counter-reformation, and also of Renaissance arts.  Duke Wilhelm V the Pious (1548�1626) (left, wife Renata right) commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a center for the counter-reformation, and he also built the Hofbr�uhaus (see below) for brewing brown beer in 1589.  The Catholic League was founded in Munich in 1609.  In 1623 (during the Thirty Years' War) Munich became Electoral residence when Maximilian I (right), Duke of Bavaria was invested with the electoral dignity.  But in 1632, Gustav II Adolphus of Sweden (below left) invaded Bavaria during the Thirty Years� War and occupied the city.   He threatened to sack and burn the entire city of Munich but would leave the city in peace if the citizens surrendered some hostages and 600,000 barrels of Hofbr�uhaus beer.  This literally saved the city.  Gustav was killed in a later battle and his daughter Christina (right) became "King" of Sweden as he had dictated.  Click on her name; her life was extremely interesting and worth reading about.  After converting to Catholicism and abdicating her throne, she spent her latter years in France and Rome, where she was buried in St. Peter's Basilica.  But I digress.

            When the bubonic plague broke out in Munich in 1634-5 about one third of the population died.  Under the regency of the Bavarian Electors, Munich was an important center of baroque life but also had to suffer under Habsburg occupations in 1704 and 1742.  Maximilian II Emanuel (1679-1726) (left) grandson of Max I, took part in the War of the Spanish Succession on the side of France, against the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.  He was then forced to flee Bavaria following the Battle of Blenheim in 1706 but regained it in 1714 by the Peace of Baden and he ruled until 1726.  Maximilian III Joseph (below left, arms right) (1745-77) was childless and became the last of the direct Wittelsbach line from Louis IV.  He was succeeded by Charles (Karl) Theodore (right) (1977-99,) who thereby Charles Theodoreregained their old titles for the senior Wittelsbach line, descending from Louis IV's older brother Rudolf I.  Karl was not popular and was also childless.  He was succeeded by a distant cousin, the Count Palatine of Zweibr�cken, Maximilian IV Joseph (see below.)

            In 1806, the city became the capital of the new Kingdom of Bavaria, with the state's parliament (Landtag) and the new archdiocese of Munich and Freising being located in the city.  The city's coat of arms is left.  Twenty years later Landshut University was moved to Munich.  The first three Bavarian kings saw the erection of many of the city's finest buildings.  With Napoleon causing the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the Prince (Emperor) Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian IV Joseph (right,) then took title as the first King of Bavaria with the name Maximilian I and ruled from 1805-25.  He was succeeded by his son Ludwig I (left) who ruled from 1825-48 and then by his son, Maximilian II from 1848-64.  Max II was well liked by the people and pictured is one of the memorial statues erected of him (below left.)  He is pictured in royal garb (center left) and in a photo of him hunting (center right.)  Below right is a photo of him with his wife Marie and their two sons, Ludwig II (left) and Otto (right.)


            Now we get to the succession of his oldest son, the famous Ludwig II (below left) who rules from 1864 until his untimely suspicious death by drowning in Lake Starnberger See (left) near the small town of Berg in 1886.  He built the famous castles (including the "fairytale" Schloss Neuschwanstein castle (right)) and practically bankrupted the kingdom in the process.  He built one on the small and only island on the lake called Roseninsel.  He was succeeded by his brother Otto (below right) from 1886-1913.  But after ruling for 27 years, poor Otto developed mental illness and he had to be confined.  He was replaced by his older relative, Ludwig III from 1913-18 (see below.)


            Following the outbreak of WWI in 1914, life in Munich became very difficult, as the Allied blockade of Germany led to food and fuel shortages.  During French air raids in 1916, three bombs fell on Munich.  After the war, the city was the center of much political unrest.  In November 1918, on the eve of a revolution, Ludwig III (left & right) and his family fled the city.  That was the end of the Wittelsbachs.  After the murder of the first republican Premier of Bavaria, Jewish Socialist Kurt Eisner, (below left) in February 1919 by Anton Graf von Arco, (below right) a Jewish anti-Semite.  Hitler attended Eisner's funeral wearing both black and red arm bands.   Anton received the death penalty which a conservative judge reduced to 5 years.  He was released from prison to make room for Hitler to take his cell (ironic, see below.)

            Immediately afterward, the Bavarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed.  When Communists had taken power, Lenin (who had lived in Munich years earlier,) sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was put down on May 3, 1919 by the conservative Freikorps.  While the republican government had been restored, Munich subsequently became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which Adolf Hitler and National Socialism rose to prominence.  In 1923, Hitler had his Beer Hall Putsch temporarily crippling the Nazi Party (see Diario #5.)  The city again become a Nazi stronghold when the National Socialists took power in Germany in 1933.

            They created the first concentration camp at Dachau (10 miles (16 km) NW of the city.)  Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung ("Capital of the Movement.")  The Nazi headquarters were in Munich and many F�hrerbauten ("F�hrer-buildings") were built around the K�nigsplatz, some of which have survived to this day (see below.)

            Munich was also the base of the White Rose, a group of students that formed a resistance movement against Hitler and the Nazi government from June 1942 to February 1943.  The six core members of the group were arrested by the Gestapo and they were executed by decapitation in 1943.  This happened following a distribution of leaflets at Munich University by siblings Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst.  Left is an East Germany stamp of the Scholls from 1961 and right showing Sophie from West Germany in 1991.  In the photo below from 1943 are, from left Hans Scholl, his sister Sophie Scholl, and Christoph Probst.


            They are considered heroes and are buried (below left) in the Perlacher Friedhof next to the Stadelheim prison in Munich (where both Anton and Hitler had been held.)  Above right is a memorial to them near the Hofgarten.  Below right is the memorial to them in Ludwig University depicting the leaflets distributed.


            The history of Munich would be deplete without mentioning the history of the famous Hofbr�uhaus am Platzl [Platzl 9, +49-89-29-013-6100, hbteam@hofbraeuhaus.de.]  It was founded in 1589 by Wilhelm V.  It is one of Munich�s oldest beer halls.  It was originally founded as the brewery to the old Royal Residence, which at that time was situated just around the corner from where the beer hall stands today. It was moved to this location in 1607 by his son Maximillian I.  The beer quickly became world famous thanks to the first brewer, Heimeran Pongratz, and the famous �Bavarian Beer Purity Law� of 1516 that stated that only natural ingredients could be used in the brewing process.  King Ludwig I in 1828, issued a decree that opened up the Hofbr�uhaus to the public, marking the onset of the operation of the Hofbr�uhaus at Platzl as we know it today.  In 1852 Maximillian II transferred it to the Bavarian State.  In 1879, they patented this logo (left) to prevent others from using it.  Prince Regent Luitpold decided to move the brewery out of the Hofbr�uhaus and to build a completely new brewing site (left) above the storage cellars on Innere Wiener Street.  The last batch of beer was brewed at the old site on May 22, 1896.  The new Hofbr�uhaus opened on September 22, 1897.  On the night of April 25, 1944, the first airborne bombs struck the Hofbr�uhaus.  Three subsequent air raids almost completely destroyed the building and only a small section of the main beer hall was still operational � all other rooms had been destroyed.  Just in time for Munich �s 800th anniversary, the Hofbr�uhaus� new Festival Hall reopened, marking the end of the renovation work.  Today it is run by the landlords, Wolfgang and Michael Sperger.  To buy HB products click SHOP.  You can even buy a classic dirndl (right) for about �200.

            Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart lived around the block from the famous beer hall in the late 18th Century.  In a poem he wrote, Mozart claimed to have written the opera "Idomeneo" after several visits to the Hofbr�uhaus fortified him for the task.  In the 19th Century, most of the breweries in Munich, including the Hofbr�uhaus, were converted into large beer halls, restaurants, and entertainment centers with large, cavernous meeting rooms for weddings, concerts, and plays.  In the period after WWI, the beer halls of Munich became swept up in the chaotic politics of the period.  Vladimir Lenin lived in Munich just before WWI and reportedly visited the Hofbr�uhaus on a regular basis.  In 1919, the Munich Communist government set up headquarters in the famous beer hall, and in 1920 Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists held their first meeting in the Festsaal (Festival Room) on the third floor.  It was used by the Nazi Party to declare policies and hold functions.  On February 24, 1920, Adolf Hitler proclaimed the 25 theses of the National Socialist program at the Hofbr�uhaus, which reconstituted the German Workers' Party as the National Socialist German Workers' Party, known as the Nazi Party.  Hitler�s experiences with the Hofbr�uhaus were limited to political events and later commemorations.  The famous �Beer Hall Putsch� of 1923 actually took place in another beer hall called Burgerbr�ukeller (below left,) which used to stand on the east side of the city where a Hilton Hotel now stands.

            In 1939, an anti-Nazi (communist) workman, Georg Elser (left), concealed a time bomb in the B�rgerbr�ukeller, set to go off during Hitler's speech on November 8th. The bomb exploded, killing 7 people and injuring 63, but Hitler left a half hour earlier than planned and escaped unharmed.  If only, huh?  Above right is a photo of it after the bombing.  Elser was imprisoned at Dachau until they executed him at the end of the war.

            Since Hitler did not drink alcohol, eat red meat, or smoke, the beer hall was not his scene.  His favorite restaurant in Munich was an Italian restaurant near Munich�s famed Ludwig-Maximillian University.  Before he turned to politics, one of Hitler's watercolors was of the Hofbr�uhaus.

            After WWII, the Hofbr�uhaus quickly became Munich�s number one tourist attraction.  Hofbr�uhauses have opened in Hamburg (2005,) Bremen (2008,) Regensburg, Kaiserslautern and Berchtesgaden.  Hofbr�uhauses have been operating in Melbourne, Australia since 1968 as well as Newport, Kentucky (2003,) Las Vegas, Miami Beach, Chicago, Milwaukee, and Pittsburgh (2009.)  They are also in Genoa, Italy, Stockholm, Dubai, and the first in Asia in Seoul, Korea and Bangkok.  The Hofbr�uhaus Las Vegas [4510 Paradise Rd, 702-853-BEER] (above & right) is the first full-scale replica of the Munich beer hall anywhere in the world.

              On this our 4th day, I woke at 12:20, 2:00, 5:30, and from a dream at 7:45.  At 9:10 I got up, dressed for running while Marcia was downstairs having her breakfast almost alone because it was last call.

            By 9:35 I was at the Rosen Apoteke and at 9:50 I was walking again to Odeonsplatz (below left.)


            At 10:00 I had my cappuccino at SFCC (above left) doing my usual daily computer chores.  At 11:00 I walked across the street (above right,) through the gate and did my run in the Hofgarten (below) and calculated, using my pedometer, that it takes 4 circuits around the the outer lane of the park to make a mile (1.61 km.)


            This became my favorite place to run because I didn't have to watch out for the trams and bicyclists and there weren't too many tourists to navigate through.  Below are the views looking forward (right) and backward (left) half way down one leg.

            Below is a view of the center of the park, half way down the inner path, with the little cupola in the center.

            As you pass the back end of the park, you see a view of the Staatskanzlei (Bavarian State Chancelery.)  The White Rose memorial is here and the underground soldier's memorial can be seen behind the building.

            Below is the lane in front of the building all covered with trees at one end of Hofgarten (left) and the seating outside of Tambosi's at the other end (right.)

            On the left is an aerial shot from Bing maps showing the outdoor seating on both sides of the wall.  I took this photo (below) of the sign showing the extent of the famous Englischer Garten, which is the largest park within the city limits of any city.  I did not go there because we have covered it on several previous trips.  It is definitely worthwhile visiting, especially the 4 major biergartens they have there.


            Above is a Bing map of the English Garden showing its full extent.  I finished my run through the streets and passed by this side of the Residenz (below.)

            These are my two attempts using Photostitch to show the entire extent of it.

            I walked down Briennerstra�e and came across Maximilianplatz (Wittelsbacherplatz) in honor of the Wittelsbachs, of course.

            Below is a Bing aerial of the square.

              At the center of the square is the equestrian statue of Maximilian I (above and below) erected by King Ludwig I in October 1839.  Fuerst means Prince but don't know what the "Chur" in front of it means.  Maybe "elector"?


            There were several nice art galleries along Briennerstra�e and I got a shot of this excellent watercolor by Detlev Nitschke (born 1935) titled "Blumenmarkt in Rom" or "Flower Market in Rome."  It was appropriate with the nice flowers on the street.  To see more of his excellent work, click his name.


            Munich has many tour buses visiting the sites as most cities do.  I caught one coming and one going.


            I then went back to the SFCC and had another cappuccino but this time I sat out in their courtyard in the back watching the fountain flowing.  There are two shots of the outdoor seating.


            This edifice was erected in 1819 and refurbished in 1950 after the war.


            At 12:10 Marcia was out buying arch pads at Orthofit [6 F�rbergraben, +49-892-350-8270] nearby the hotel and then went to the same Rosen Apoteke before having lunch at Vinzenzmurr [8 Marienplatz, +49-8-922-1938.]  They are famous for their sausages.

            At 2:30 I left the SFCC and discovered that right near by there is the Odeonsplatz Ubahn station entrance (below left.)  I decided to try this as a way to find K�nigsplatz.  So I went down into the subway which is a long escalator ride down (below right.)


            I had no idea how to buy a ticket but finally found this machine (below) which sells them in a very complicated fashion.  There were too many options.


            I finally gave up a bought a single ticket for �2.4 (below left.)  Then I took a look at this map (below right) showing all the train routes in Munich and was even more confused so finally had to ask how to get to Karlsplatz.


            I took the train (below left) and arrived at the Karlsplatz station at 2:40.  This place was an immense underground shopping center (below right.)


            I arrived at Karlsplatz station which is divided into five levels.  Level 1, just below road level, is home to a large shopping mall which is soon due for renovation.  Large shops like Kaufhof have branches here.  Level 2 has a branch of the Stadtsparkasse, a large local bank, as well as ticket counters and eateries.  Level 3 holds the S-Bahn station with two tracks and three platforms, arranged in the Spanish solution (the island platform is for boarding only and the side platforms are for disembarking.)  The lines S1-2 and S4-8 stop here.  Level 4 allows interchange between the S-Bahn and U-Bahn.  Level 5 holds the U-Bahn station with two tracks and two platforms.  Lines U4 and U5 stop here, travelling in a N-W direction.  The station is the deepest in the whole network and thus has the longest escalator.

            I climbed the stairs out of the station, got outside and found that this was not where I wanted to go.  I realized I was trying to get to K�nigsplatz, not Karlsplatz.  You can see how easy that would be to mix up.  So I took a few photos of the Karlsplatz area.  The first thing you see is, of course, one of the three city gates I mentioned yesterday, Karlstor built in 1701.  I could go through the gate and continue down Kaufingerstra�e and reach the hotel.


            Below is one of the two large curved buildings just past the gate ...

... and then there is the huge fountain the kids like to run in.

            I then went back down the stairs into the underground and transferred to Ubahn 4 heading to the Hauptbahnhof (main train station) where I thought I would get close to K�nigsplatz.  Well I wound up being wrong again.  This main station is huge (below.)

            If you step out the front door of the station on Bayerstra�e (below left,) you can see the Accor Sofitel Munich (below right) where we stayed at the start and end of our Germany Trip in 2007.


            Of course, that is where all the Mercedes taxis stand.  I went inside and headed to the other end of the station and went outside onto Arnulfstra�e (left.)  I tried looking at maps and asking directions.  At 3:15, I just kept walking and I wound up at the corner of Luisenstrae and Elisenstrae.  I was completely lost.  There, I came across this interesting building that I discovered is the St�dtisches Luisengymnasium (Municipal Luise High School,) an 823-student, 8-year high school specializing in languages.  It was founded as the oldest high school in 1822 as a girl's school (became co-ed in 1969) in honor of Princess (left) Ludovica Wilhelmine (Duchess Luise, 1808-92) who was the 6th child of Maximilian I Joseph.  Above right is a photo of Luise taken in 1890 when she was 81.  She had ten children and enjoyed living in the palace near Lake Stargensee.  Luise was in the famous painting of the three sisters (below left) by Joseph Karl Stieler (left) (1781-1858.)  Luise is on the left with her sisters Maria Anna und Sophie Friederike.  Stieler also is well known for his portraits of Beethoven (below center) done in 1820 and of Goethe (below right) done in 1828.


            Below left is the school as I passed it and a Bing map of it on the right showing the Charles Hotel across the street.


            So at 3:40 I found this huge red circle sculpture (below) and came to find out I was at the side of the Charles Hotel, a very upscale hotel.  In my running shorts, I went inside this very posh place and begged for directions.  The nice lady told me I was very close and it was just two more blocks.


            Feeling reassured, I continued on and finally came across what I found out was my destination, the famous K�nigsplatz.  Below are Bing map shots of the grounds.

            Above is the Google map to compare with the Bing.  Below left is my shot of the main entry gate called the Propyl�en which took four photographs using PhotoStitch to make because I couldn't get far enough back to get it all in in one shot.  After walking around it, I got a regular shot of the other side (below right.)


            Here are some more Bing map shots of it.  As can be seen, it is very symmetric, looking the same from the front and the back.


            This K�nigsplatz area is a huge parade ground.  The Propyl�en has Doric columns (left,) while the Glyptothek (Sculpture Museum) has Ionic columns (right.)  Across the way is the Staatliche Antikensammlungen (State Museum of Classical Art) which has Corinthian columns (below left.)  K�nigsplatz is completed by the St. Boniface's Abbey (below) on its back side.  The Abbey (Abtei St. Bonifaz) is a Benedictine monastery founded in 1835 by King Ludwig I as a part of his efforts to reanimate the country's spiritual life by the restoration of the monasteries destroyed during the secularization of the early 19th century.  It was formally dedicated in 1850 but was destroyed in WWII and only partly restored. The church contains the tomb of King Ludwig I.  Below right is how its interior looked in 1900.

            The Propyl�en was completed by Leo von Klenze in 1862 and is meant to evoke the monumental entrance of the Propylaea (below left) (#5 in map) of the Acropolis (below right) in Athens.  The K�nigsplatz Propyl�en was created as a memorial for the accession to the throne of Otto of Greece, King Ludwig I's son.


            Above is how the Greek Propylaea looks today during reconstruction.  As a beautiful and monumental place, the K�nigsplatz was used by the Third Reich as a field for the Nazi Party's mass rallies.  Below shows Nazi troops marching through the Propyl�en and Hitler and Mussolini reviewing troops.


            Two "Honor Temples" (Ehrentempel) (below) were erected at the east end of the square (left, below right) for the remains of the 16 Nazis who died in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch.  In 1935, the bodies of the 16 dead putschists were removed from their various graves and placed in cast-iron sarcophagi, which lay in state at the Feldherrenhalle (see yesterday) on November 8.  The next day the sarcophagi were placed in the Ehrentempel during elaborate ceremonies.

            The Brown House, which was the national headquarters of the Nazi Party in Germany was located at nearby 45 Briennerstra�e (the little building behind the left temple.) 

            The temples were quickly and completely removed after the war, so I found all these photos at www.thirdreichinruins.com.  Its a wonderful site to explore.

            Each temple held 8 bodies each in their individual sarcophagus.  Each sarcophagus was labeled with the words "Der Letzte Appell" (The Last Roll Call), the last name of the deceased, and "Hier" (Here).

            Note the intertwined swashtikas in the ceiling pattern (below left.)  SS soldiers kept guard for the memory of November 9, 1923.

            In January 1947 the U.S. Army occupation authorities ordered the Ehrentempels to be destroyed.  Below is a US Army soldier inspecting the temple.

            The sarcophagi had already been removed in 1945, and the bodies returned to their families or buried in unmarked graves in various Munich cemeteries.  The cast-iron sarcophagi and inner tin coffins were melted down and used in city reconstruction.  The columns were blown down and the roofs collapsed but their platforms remain today.

            Two buildings of the Nazi party, constructed by Paul Troost, next to the temples still exist.  They are the F�hrerbau (F�hrer Building) and the Verwaltungsbau (Administration Building.)   In one of them, the F�hrerbau (left,) the Munich Pact was signed in 1938.  More on this below.  Today it has been turned into a school for music and theatre called the Hochschule f�r Musik und Theater M�nchen.  Now lets turn to the two major museums located here.

            First I will show the Glyptothek [+49-8-928-6100] [�3.5, senior �2.5, Sun �1] which I never got into because it was too late.  Its a shame because it contains sculptures dating from 650 BC to 550 AD.  The defined periods are: Archaic period (700-490 BC,) the Classical period (489�323 BC,) the Hellenistic period (322�146 BC) and the Roman period (150 BC-550 AD.)  Above right is the the exhibits displayed and below is my shot of the building.

            Below is a nice stock photo I found of the building.

            Below are some of their sculptures; below left is Septimus Severus (193-212AD,) center left is "Faun" by Barberini, center right is a bronze Zeus (510BC) and below right is a young man of Corinth (560-550 BC.)

            Below left is the Aphaia pediment (505�500BC.)  In it are the 5 central figures of the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia.  From L-R are: Trojan soldier's feet, Ajax with a shield, the goddess Athena, a Trojan warrior with shield and feet of Greek soldiers.  According to myth, Zeus raped the nymph Aigina, who bore the first king of the island, Aiakos.  Aiakos had the sons Telamon (father of the Homeric hero Ajax) and Peleus (father of the Homeric hero Achilles.)


            The temple is in Greece on the Island of Aegina (Egina) in the Saronic Gulf (above right and below.)  You can see it is the largest island in the center of the Gulf.


            The museum also has the Roman Venus Braschi from the Villa of the Quintilii outside Rome bought by Ludwig I in 1811.  It is a copy of the Greek Aphrodite statue by Praxiteles.  They also have �Dying warrior� (fallen Trojan king, probably Laomedon,) of the east pediment of the temple (below left) and from the west pediment a fallen Trojan warrior (below right.)

            Below left are the ruins of the temple.  Below right is the museum's stone relief of Mnesarete (380 BC.)


            Mnesarete was known as Phryne because of her yellowish complexion and was a famous Greek courtesan of the 4th C BC.  She was famously beautiful and was often the model for sculptures of Venus (left) and Aphrodite (right) by Praxiteles.  She acquired so much wealth by her extraordinary beauty that she offered to rebuild the walls of Thebes, which had been destroyed by Alexander the Great (336 BC,) on condition that the words "destroyed by Alexander, restored by Phryne the courtesan," would be inscribed upon them but they turned down her offer.  In her famous trial before the court of Areopagus she supposedly stood nude and was then acquitted.  Here is the 1861 painting "Phryne before the Areopagus" by Jean-L�on G�r�me (below.)

            Now to the other museum on the other side of K�nigsplatz, the Staatliche Antikensammlungen (below.)


            This is the one I went in first.  At 4:00 I climbed the stairs, past the huge statue and discovered it was still open and bought a ticket (below) to visit for �2.5.


            The Staatliche Antikensammlungen (State Collections of Antiquities) [K�nigsplatz, +49-892-892-7503] is a museum for the Bavarian state's antique collections of Greek, Etruscan and Roman art.  It was established by the Bavarian King Ludwig I in 1848.  The architect was Georg Friedrich Ziebland.  They let me know in no uncertain terms, that photography is strictly ferbotten.

            As you can see from my shots (below) it is filled with ancient sculptures and pottery from the Roman, Greek and Persian civilizations.


            Below is "Goldkranz aus Armento" (gold wreath on silver) (370-360 BC) which is a golden decorated funerary or marriage crown found in a grave in Armento (Campania,) Italy.


Below is a golden diadem from Pantekapelon, Ukraine (300 BC.)


            Below is my shot of some ancient jewelry.  On the right is a better photo I found of the gold flamboyant brooch with engraved jewelry plate, (early 7th C BC) which is in my photo upper right.


            Here is a box of carved pieces and a painting of a Roman youth.


            They had a lot of ancient pottery on display.


            Below left is a famous 4th C. AD Roman goblet made of reticella (or network) glass which shows its Latin inscription "Bibe Multis Annis" ("drink many years.")  It was a present of the City of Cologne in return for King Ludwig's support for the completion of the Cologne Cathedral.  Below center is the Dionysos Kylix (cup) by Greek artist Exekias (550-25 BC) which is pictured on my entry ticket.  He worked mainly with a technique called black-figure.  The painting on this cup depicts the initial journey of the god Dionysos to Athens by ship.  Pirates had seized the ship and were going to sell him into slavery.  Instead, the god caused vines to grow from the mast, frightening the pirates and they jumped overboard and were changed into dolphins.  Here (right) is an example of Exekias' signature as a potter: ΕΧΣΕΚΙΑΣ ΕΠΟΙΕΣΕ (�Exekias made me.�)  On the right is a photo I took of one of their Greek urns.



            As you can see (above) they have a lot of different items.  They were closing just as I had finished seeing everything but there was no time to see the Glyptothek.  I left there and got this beautiful panorama of the entire K�nigsplatz with the Staatsgalerie on the left, the gate in the center and the Glyptothek on the right.

            Below are some maps of the area.


            As I rounded the corner I photographed this building (below left,) not knowing its historical importance.  I later found out it was the F�hrerbau (F�hrer Building) mentioned above.  I don't know why I took a picture of it, perhaps I thought it looked important.  As I have now found out, it certainly was.  It was Hitler's headquasrters...


...and the place where Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (UK) and Prime Minister �douard Deladier (France) (see flags below left) came and met with Hitler and Mussolini (above right flags of Nazi Germany and Italy) and signed the Munich Pact on September 30, 1938.  This is considered the act of appeasement with Hitler allowing him to swallow up the Sudetenland section of Czechoslovakia.  Below right you can see them all leaving this building after the signing.  Hitler got what he wanted; the others got "peace."


            Below left is (L-R) Mussolini, Hitler, a translator and Chamberlain.  Below right is (L-R) Chamberlain, Deladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Count Galeazzo Ciano, Mussolini's foreign minister.

            Below left is a photo of Hitler signing the Accord with foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop looking on to the right.  In the background, you can see Hermann G�ring talking with Mussolini.  Below right are the Nazis coming out during a break.


            Below left is a photo from www.thirdreichinruins.com looking toward Karolinenplatz where the Ehrentempel used to be on the left and right with the office buildings on either side.  Below right is the shot I took as I headed away from K�nigsplatz.  See that column at the end of the street in both shots?  It is the Obelisk monument in the center of Karolinenplatz on Briennerstra�e (more tomorrow.)


            K�nigsplatz turns into Briennerstra�e on the other side of Karolinenplatz.

            I walked around until I hit a dead-end on Katharina-von-Bora-Stra�e (prev. Meiserstra�e) and found the Park-Cafe [7 Sophienstra�e, +49-895-161-7980] which looked like a very inviting place to get an afternoon refresher since I didn't see anything else around anywhere.



            It was an impressive structure and I walked inside but there was no one in there (above right) so I walked behind the bar into the back and discovered there was this big Biergarten (below.)  To get a beer, you have to go to that lineup of glass beer steins way on the left, pick up what you want and then pay for it at the little green shack.

            The pretty young M�dchen (girl) in the shack takes my money and then hands me this little blue chip.  I asked her what it was and she told me it was a "Pfand."  After careful questioning I figured out they charged me extra for the glass, so if I want my Euro back I bring the glass and the Pfand to her.  At 4:30 I picked my bench and sat amongst all the others who were enjoying an afternoon L�wenbr�u (which is the only beer they sell - a very common practice for Biergartens here in Germany.)  I found this triple seed from one of the large trees nearby and brought it home with me and planted it.


             I pulled my computer out and started work on my talks for the September Paris meeting (ESCRS.)  I worked so hard I had a second stein of beer.

            I learned from their website that the building was built in 1935 and it has always been a place for night time parties.

            It appears they also serve food (below left.)  Hugh Hefner used to party here with a bevy of Playmates.


            For those who enjoy them there are about 20 major beer gardens, with four of the most famous and popular being located in the Englischer Garten and the largest one in the Hirschgarten.  Here are a few with links to their websites: Augustiner Br�u, Paulaner, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbr�u, L�wenbr�u, Spaten-Franziskaner-Br�u.

            At 5:20 I turned my stein back in and got my refund for the deposit (Pfand) and then walked through the Alter Botanische Garten (below,) which it is a part of, in an attempt to head back towards Karlsplatz.


            I went by the pond with the statuary in the center (above and below.)


              I discovered that this sculpture of Neptune was done in 1937 by Third Reich sculptor Josef Wackerle.  Below is a shot of it after it was first erected.

            There was this huge building in front of me which I decided to go around on the left.

            As you can see from the map below, I had to walk from the pond, down Elisenstra�e, around the building via Karlsplatz and make a left on Prielmayerstra�e to see the front of the complex.

            It is the Justizpalast (Palace of Justice) which was constructed in 1890-7 by the architect Friedrich von Thiersch in neo-baroque style and houses the Bavarian Department of Justice and the District Court I of Munich.  In 1943 The People's Court sentenced the members of the White Rose (see above) in Room 253 which is now memorialized.  The center of the building is dominated by a 220 ft (67 m) glass dome (below right.)


            Above right is the main entry hall.  As I can now see, the route I took using the Ubahn was ridiculous (green arrows) because I could have easily walked there on Briennerstra�e (red arrows.).  My trek back is the brown arrows.


            I finally arrived back at Karlsplatz and below is a stock aerial photo of it.  The large arched building on the left houses the Glorie Palast (above right) movie theater (click the link to find out what movies are playing.)

            Below are the panorama shots of it I took.

            This was officially named Karlsplatz in 1797 after the unpopular Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria.  Munich natives seldom use that name, calling it instead Stachus, after the pub Beim Stachus, once owned by Eustachius F�derl, that was located there until construction work for Karlsplatz began.

            I continued on down Kaufingerstra�e and at 5:35 I decided to go inside and revisit St. Michael Kirche.  It was covered with a screen to hide the scaffolding for refurbishment.  The screen was a photo of how it used to look (more tomorrow.)


            I continued on down the street and just before entering Marienplatz I turned right and decided to go into a neat place called Zum Sp�ckmeier [9 Rosenstra�e,+49-8-926-8088.]


            This is a Paulaner brewery place (glasses on display above right) so at 6:40 I ordered a beer called Paulaner helles.  They also serve lots of food; right is a shot of their classic Bavarian Schweinhaxn.  While sitting there I called Marcia to join me and she said she would be "just a few minutes."  That "few" turned out to be 60 minutes after which I bought her a glass of white wine on her arrival.

            I had had two more waiting for her all that time.  See the guy next to Marcia.  He was totally inebriated and before she got there, he kept chatting with me the entire time I was there waiting.  He was a riot.


            We relaxed for a while and at 8:30, we walked over to the Viktualienmarkt area, but I needed an emergency pitstop before finding a place to eat.  We raced inside this nice white building called Der Pschorr Wirtshaus [Viktualienmarkt 15, + 49-895-181-8171.]  It is run by Inka and J�rgen Lochbihler.  It was really packed when we arrived and I had to fight my way to find the facilities.  We decided to try their beer and wine.

            As can be seen from their photos, it a big lively place and besides being a nice beer hall they serve a wide variety of foods.


            All the waitresses wear their bright red Bavarian uniforms and you can even buy a pin from Tamara here. 


            From the map above, we left there and walked back up through the market stalls to St. Peters Kirche looking for a place to have a nice dinner.  We wandered south of St. Peters, into Dreifaltigkeitsplatz where we came across the Gothic hall church Heiliggeistkirche (The Church of the Holy Spirit) (left.)  It was converted to baroque in 1724 and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt.  It originally belonged to the Hospice of the Holy Ghost (14th C.,) was remodeled in 1724-30 by Johann Georg Ettenhofer and embellished with fine Rococo frescoes and stucco ornamentation by the famous Asam brothers.  The tower was built in 1730 and has a characteristic Munich lantern dome (left.)  After the demolition of the hospice buildings, in 1885, Franz L�wel added three bays at the west end of the church and gave it an imposing neo-baroque fa�ade.  The church suffered severe damage during WWII and its interior furnishings were largely destroyed.  Extensive rebuilding and restoration was carried out after the war.  Of the original Gothic church there remain only the choir buttresses and the north wall of the nave.


            Looking to the rear of the church can be seen the organ (above left.)  In the chancel (above center) the high altar is by Nikolaus Stuber (1730,) with an altarpiece by Ulrich Loth entitled "The Effusion of the Holy Spirit" (1661) and two flanking angels by Johann Georg Greiff (1729.)  On the right aisle (above right,) a series of wall paintings (1725) by Peter Horeman illustrating the "Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit."


            The ceiling (above right) and surrounding abutments are spectacular.  The interior of the church was again renovated at great expense in 1991.  We decided at 8:50 we would have dinner at Zum Alten Markt [3 Dreifaltigkeitsplatz, +49-8-929-9995.]


            The name means "On the Old Market."  They gave us a nice outdoor table (above right) and we perused the menu.


            I had had enough beer so I ordered colkalite (3.4) and Marcia had two glasses of Grner Veltliner (10.4.)  I then ordered the "Chef's Plate" (below left) which had a pork filet (upper left), bavarian burger (lower left), sausages (center,) bacon, sauerkraut (center) and potatoes (Wirtstelle mit Schweinfilet, W�rst'l und Speck auf Sauerkraut und Nusskartoffeln.)  There also is a split hot dog standing in the center. (14.8)


            Marcia had her favorite, filet of salmon trout (above right, below) with rosemary-tomato butter on spinach and potatoes  (Lachsforellenfilet mit Rosmarin Tomattenbutter auf Blattspinat und Nusskartoffeln) (14.8)


            Then for dessert, we split a apple pancak with vanilla ice cream (gratinierter apfelpfannkuchen mit Rahmvanilleeis) (above right) (6.5.)  Marcia took the suggestion of our delightful waitress and had a glass of Frst Frnkische Wildkirsche Franconia Wildkirsch (7.8) (below.)  We rated the overall experience as good, not excellent.


            At 10:30 we left and ambled our way back to our room and got to bed at 10:45.  I total crashed!  Probably from all the walking.  What a day.

KJH                                                                         Go To -> NEXT DIARIO #7 

Kenneth J. Hoffer, MD

KHofferMD@AOL.com                        RETURN TO INDEX

Munich, Germany


Sent 2-18-2011

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